In cybersecurity, cyber self-defense refers to self-defense against cyberattack. While it generally emphasizes active cybersecurity measures by computer users themselves, it is sometimes used to refer to the self-defense of organizations as a whole, such as corporate entities or entire nations.

Surveillance self-defense is a variant of cyber-self-defense or largely overlaps with it. Active and passive cybersecurity measures provide defenders with higher levels of cybersecurity, intrusion detection, incident handling, and remediation capabilities. Various sectors and organizations are legally obligated to adhere to cybersecurity standards.



  • Enable Multi-factor authentication.
  • Minimize authentication risk by limiting the number of people.
  • Reduce one’s social media footprint to mitigate risk profile.
  • Regularly check one’s social media security and privacy settings.
  • Create strong and unique passwords for each user account and change passwords frequently and after any security incident.
  • Use a password manager to avoid storing passwords in physical form.
  • Appropriately use password brute force attack prevention software.
  • Never give out logins or passwords to anyone unless absolutely necessary and if so, change them immediately thereafter.

Anti-Social Engineering Measures

  • Do not plug in found external storage devices, such as external hard drives, USB flash drives, and other digital media.
  • Beware of social engineering techniques.
  • Beware of piggybacking (tailgating) wherein a threat actor closely follows authorized personnel into a secure facility.
  • Be cautious when browsing and opening email attachments or links in emails, known as phishing.

Preventative Software Measures

  • Use, but do not rely solely on antivirus software.
  • Use an antimalware product, such as Malwarebytes Anti-Malware, in conjunction with an antivirus with vulnerability scanning features.
  • Update and upgrade all of one’s software and programs.
  • Encrypt one’s computer and phone.
  • Regularly create backups of one’s data.
  • Uninstall insecure software such as Adobe Flash.

Network and Information Security Measures

  • Using a firewall on Internet-connected devices.
  • Not running programs, services, or browsers with a super-user or privileged user account.
  • Avoiding free WiFi and not logging into any accounts while using it.
  • Appropriately using privacy and anonymity software.
  • Using a virtual private network with IPsec to secure traffic at the transport layer of the OSI model to harden the IP stack.